Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • Osteoporosis
    • A silent and progressive disease of bone thinning which leads to an increased risk of fracture.
    • Of women older than 50:
      • Thirteen to eighteen percent have an osteoporosis T score less than -2.5.
      • Thirty-seven to fifty percent have a lesser condition called an osteopenia T score -1.0 to -2.5.
    • All women should consume adequate calcium and vitamin D and engage in appropriate weight-bearing exercise.
    • Depending on individual risk factors, most practitioners will treat patients with a BMD T score of -1.6 to -2.0.
    • See also: National Osteoporosis Foundation.
  • Ovarian cyst
    • This is a general term used to describe a fluid-filled structure.
    • When considering the ovary, cysts can be quite problematic. In one sense, the job of the ovary is to make cysts. The developing follicle becomes two centimeters before ovulating.
    • It is not unusual for a premenopausal woman to develop a cyst on one or both ovaries. At times, that woman may develop some discomfort as a result of a cyst or the rupture of a cyst.
    • The best way to evaluate an ovarian cyst is with ultrasound. Based on its ultrasound appearance, we try to predict whether a cyst is functional or neoplastic and if neoplasm(tumor) is suspected, whether it looks benign or cancerous. Ultimately, surgery is required for diagnosis.
      • Functional: the most common type of cyst. It will resolve without treatment, though sometimes will be quite uncomfortable. This cyst will be simple and usually less than 8 cm.
      • Neoplastic (tumor): often difficult to differentiate.
        • Benign: most neoplasms of the ovary are not malignant especially in premenopausal women. On ultrasound, they may have septations (walls) and may be larger than 8cm.
        • Malignant: more common in postmenopausal women. These tumors are frequently complex in appearance with multiple septations and even solid areas. They may be accompanied by fluid in the abdomen and other signs of malignancy.
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